Signal Recovery- High Performance Dual Phase Lock-in Amplifier (Model: 5210)

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Over the past few years, the SIGNAL RECOVERY’ models 5209 (single-phase) and
5210 (dual-phase) have become the benchmark lock-in amplifiers against which others
are judged. They are widely referenced in technical publications describing a diverse
range of research applications including optical, electrochemical, electronic, mechanical
and fundamental physical studies.

Although more recently the introduction of instruments using digital signal processing
has brought advances in phase sensitive detection techniques, instruments using
analog demodulators are still the first choice for many experiments. These include those
requiring a true analog output, for example in some feedback control loops, or where the
instrument is used to recover the envelope modulation of a carrier frequency. Of course,
they are also chosen for compatibility with previous experimental setups.

Voltage or current inputs…
The instruments include a current preamplifier with two transimpedance settings and so
can directly measure signals from current sources such as photodiodes. With an input
impedance of down to typically only 25 Ω, the resulting voltage generated across the
source by the signal current is minimized for the very best performance.

Continuous full-scale sensitivity control…
As with all lock-ins the models 5209 and 5210 have a range of calibrated full-scale
sensitivity settings. However, unlike other units they also have a sensitivity vernier
control, allowing the full-scale sensitivity to be set to any value between the calibrated
values. Suppose you are performing an optical transmission experiment and you want
to measure transmission in terms of a percentage relative to that of a “reference”
sample. All you need to do is put the reference sample in the optical path and press the
auto vernier control on the lock-in. It will then adjust the sensitivity so that the display
reads 100%. Now replace the reference sample with the test sample and read the
percentage transmission directly.

Unique Walsh Function Demodulators…
The simplest method of implementing the phase sensitive detector at the heart of an
analog lock-in is with a reversing switch driven at the reference frequency, giving
excellent linearity, dynamic range and stability. This is known as a “squarewave”
demodulator since the instrument responds to signals not only at the reference
frequency but also at its odd harmonics. It offers much better performance than can be
achieved by using a true analog multiplier, which requires the synthesis of a very pure
reference sinusoid and is very nonlinear when handling large levels of interfering signal.

  • 0.5 Hz to 120 kHz operation
  • Voltage and current mode inputs
  • Continuous full-scale sensitivity control
  • Powerful fourth-order signal channel Bandpass, Low Pass or Notch filter
  • Up to 130 dB dynamic Reserve
  • Synchronous 15-bit ADC for lower input jitter
  • Auger spectroscopy
  • Feedback control loops
  • Replication existing experimental setups

Over the past few years. the SIGNAL RECOVERY models 5209 (single-phase) and 5210 (dual-phase) have become the benchmark lock-in amplifiers against which others are judged.


Dual-phase model 5210 analog lock-in amplifiers operating over a reference frequency range of 0.5 Hz to 120 kHz. Wide range of auxiliary inputs and outputs.

Measurement Modes
The model 5210 can simultaneously show one of these outputs on the front panel display:
   X    In-phase
   R    Magnitude
   0    Phase Angle
Harmonic  F or 2F
   Measures noise in a given bandwidth centered at the reference frequency F
Two 3½-digit LCD displays and analog panel meter
Signal Channel
Voltage Input
A only or Differential (A-B)
Full-scale Sensitivity 100 nV to 3 V in a 1-3-10 sequence and vernier adjustment
Max. Dynamic Reserve > 130 dB
Impedance 100 MΩ // 25 pF
Maximum Safe Input 30 V pk-pk
Voltage Noise 5 nV/√Hz @ 1 khZ
C.M.R.R. > 100 dB @ 1 kHz
Frequency Response 0.001 hz to 120 kHz
Gain Accuracy 1% typical in Flat mode, 2% typical in tracking Bandpass mode
Gain Stability 200 ppm/ºC typical
Distortion -90 dB THD (60 dB AC gain, 1 kHz)
Grounding BNC shields can be grounded or floated via 1 kΩ to ground
Current Input
Mode 10-6 A/V or 10-8 A/V
Full-scale Sensitivity
   10-6 A/V
100 fA to 3 µA in a 1-3-10 sequence and vernier adjustment
1 -A to 300 µA in a 1-3-10 sequence and vernier adjustment
Max. Dynamic Reserve > 130 dB
   10-6 A/V
   10-8 A/V
< 250 Ω at 1 kHz
<2.5 kΩ at 100 Hz
Maximum Input 15 mA continuous, 1 A momentary
   10-6 A/V
   10-8 A/V
130 fA/√Hz at 1 kHz
13 fA/√Hz at 500 Hz
Frequency Response
   10-6 A/V
   10-8 A/V
-3 dB at 60 kHz
-3 dB at 330 Hz
Gain Accuracy 1% typical in Flat mode, 2% typical in tracking Bandpass mode
Gain Stability 200 ppm/ºC typical
Grounding BNC shield can be grounded or floated via 1 kΩ to ground
Signal Channel Filters
Line Frequency Rejection Filter
   Center frequency,
   F (factory set)

50/100 or 60/120 Hz
Off, F, 2F, F & 2F

Main Signal Channel Filter
Fourth-order Low-pass, Bandpass, Notch or Flat (Disabled)
Auto or Manual turning
Signal Monitor Front-panel BNC connector allows viewing of signal immediately ahead of the demodulators(s)
Reference Channel
TTL Input (rear panel)
   Frequency Range
0.5 Hz to 120 kHz
Analog input (front panel)
Frequency Range
Squarewave input
Frequency Range

*Note: Lower levels can be used with the analog input at the expense of increased phase errors

1 mΩ // 30 pF
1.0 V rms*
0.5 Hz to 120 kHz

250 mVrms*
2 Hz to 120 kHz

Phase Set Resolution 0.005º increments
Phase Set Accuracy ± 1º
Phase Noise 0.005º rms @ 1 kHz, 100 ms, 12 dB TC
Phase Drift < 0.05º/ºC
(model 5210 only)
± 0.5º above 5 Hz, degrading to ± 5º at 0.5 Hz
Acquisition Time 100 ms + 2 cycles max
Lock Indicator LED warns of frequency/phase unlock
Demodulator and Output Processing
Mode Sineware (Walsh demodulator + BP/LP filter) or Squarewave

Zero stability /Dynamic Reserve

Mode Dynamic Reserve
Filter On 
Dynamic Reserve
Filter Off 
Zero Stability 
High 130 dB 60 dB 500 ppm/ºC
Normal 110 dB 40 dB 50 ppm/ºC
High 90 dB 20 dB 5 ppm/ºC

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Harmonic Rejection  > 80 dB with Low-pass, and > 60 dB with Bandpass main signal filter
Output Filters
   Time Constant
1 ms – 3 ks (1-3-10 sequence)
6 dB/oct or 12 db/oct for all TC settings
Offset Auto and Manual on X and/or Y: ±100% full-scale with Expand on)
Frequency Range
Amplitude Range
Amplitude Resolution
   0 – 500 mV
   500 mV – 2 V
0.5 Hz – 120 kHz
0 – 2 V rms (front panel or computer); 5 V rms fixed (computer only)

1 mV
4 mV

Distortion  (THD) 0.5% 
Output sinewave from 900 Ω source
Auxiliary Inputs
ADC 1, 2, 3 and 4
   Maximum input
   Input Impedance
   Sample Rate
   Trigger Mode
   Trigger Input
±15 V
1 mV
±20 mV
1 MΩ // 30 pF
100 Hz
Internal, External or ref synchronous
TTL compatible
Demodulator Monitor 100 µs TC @ 6 dB/octave (5210: X output only)
Main Analog (CH1 and CH2) Outputs
5210: Two ±10 V FS (X, Y or R, 0)
Resolution 1 mV
Impedance 1 kΩ
Update Rate 100 Hz
Expand Expands X output by factor of 10
Auxiliary D/A Outputs
5210 One output, ±15 V
Resolution 1 mV

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